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1 Peter 3 (Part 1)

3 Dec 2018

Contents

An Unexpected Detour

This post will be a deviation from my normal series on Bible notes. It’s called 1 Peter 3 (Part 1) and there will be a 1 Peter 3 (Part 2) because I got completely distracted (in a good way) when I started studying the verses I had selected in 1 Peter 3. This article won’t really be about 1 Peter 3 at all, so I’ll pick up next week and get back to the normal routine.

This Saturday, God took me on a journey, a frightening, unsettling journey. Let me you about it.

I started reading some commentaries on the verses I wanted to look at and didn’t get past the second paragraph:

The reason believers are called to bless others is so that they themselves will inherit the eschatological blessing of eternal life on the last day. The Old Testament citation commencing in v. 10 confirms that blessing others is necessary to receive eternal life, being linked to v. 9 by ‘for.’ The life and days of v. 10 are nothing other than eternal life and the future inheritance. Those who wish to enjoy such must refrain from speaking evil, make a clean break with evil in their lives, and live in the realm of goodness. They must be people who seek out peace and live peaceably. Verse 12 confirms the interpretation proposed. The Lord’s favor rests on those who are righteous, but he turns his face forever against those who practice evil. (Schreiner 2003, 162)

I really struggle with the fact that the Bible seems to teach two contradictory things at the same time:

  1. that what we do (works) matters for our eternal destiny
  2. that we are justified by faith alone, before we have had the chance to do any good works

This quote is perhaps a good summary of how I’ve been feeling:

I do not want to go to bed at night worrying about whether I will be damned by God, but neither do I want a God who is so soft that I do not have to fear him or stand in awe of his judgment if I live in sin. (McKnight 1996, 231)

These thoughts have been bubbling beneath the surface for some time. I’ve always been uneasy with the way we’ve described the assurance of salvation, that, if we’ve prayed the sinners’ prayer, then there’s nothing left for us to do except perhaps evangelism1, we’re essentially just waiting for death. We talk about it as though it’s a one-time switch – once we’ve accepted Jesus into our hearts (or whatever language you want to use), we can live the rest of our lives totally opposed to God, we can pursue evil and reject good and God will simply wag his finger at us, saying something along the lines of, ‘You’re lucky I love you, or you’d be in big trouble’ and then just wave us through.

The classical Protestant response to this is ‘we are saved by faith alone, but the faith that saves is never alone’ (some attribute a quote like this to Martin Luther). I’m not sure why, but we seem to say something like this and then leave it, as though there’s nothing more to say on the matter. For a long time, I thought this was at odds with scripture, a watering down of the awesome, terrifying holiness of God and the shockingly deep sinfulness of man.

Passages about Our Deeds

There are far more passages than this that suggest our deeds matter. Here are four that I’ve been thinking about.

The Parable of the Sheep and the Goats

The parable of the sheep and the goats in Matthew 25 tells us that the king will judge us based on our deeds

‘Then he will say to those on his left, “Depart from me, you who are cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels. For I was hungry and you gave me nothing to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me nothing to drink, I was a stranger and you did not invite me in, I needed clothes and you did not clothe me, I was sick and in prison and you did not look after me.” They also will answer, “Lord, when did we see you hungry or thirsty or a stranger or needing clothes or sick or in prison, and did not help you?” He will reply, “Truly I tell you, whatever you did not do for one of the least of these, you did not do for me,.” Then they will go away to eternal punishment, but the righteous to eternal life.’ (Matthew 25:41–46, NIV)

True and False Disciples

Talking about true and false disciples in Matthew 7, Jesus said:

‘Not everyone who says to me, “Lord, Lord,” will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. Many will say to me on that day, “Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in your name and in your name drive out demons and in your name perform many miracles?” Then I will tell them plainly, “I never knew you. Away from me, you evildoers!”’ (Matthew 7:21–23, NIV)

Jesus literally says that it’s not enough to call on his name – you must do the Father’s will in addition to calling him Lord.

Wrongdoers Will Not Inherit the Kingdom

In 1 Corinthians 6, Paul gives a list of behaviours not beliefs that will disqualify Christians from inheriting the kingdom:

Or do you not know that wrongdoers will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived: Neither the sexually immoral nor idolaters nor adulterers nor men who have sex with men nor thieves nor the greedy nor drunkards nor slanderers nor swindlers will inherit the kingdom of God. (1 Corinthians 6:9–10, NIV)

Now, Paul goes on to say, ‘And that is what some of you were. But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God,’ (v. 11) which seems to fall into the now-but-not-yet bucket of the Christian life.

Be Holy

Of course, we also have what we’ve been looking at in 1 Peter.

Since you call on a Father who judges each person’s work impartially, live out your time as foreigners here in reverent fear. (1 Peter 1:17, NIV)

Therefore, rid yourselves of all malice and all deceit, hypocrisy, envy, and slander of every kind. (1 Peter 2:1, NIV)

They stumble because they disobey the message—which is also what they were destined for. (1 Peter 2:8b, NIV)

Finally, in 1 Peter 3, Peter quotes from Psalm 34:

They must turn from evil and do good; … the face of the Lord is against those who do evil. (1 Peter 3:11a, 12b, NIV)

Sin and Forgiveness

In 1 John:

But if anybody does sin, we have an advocate with the Father—Jesus Christ, the Righteous One. (1 John 2:1b, NIV)

If all our sin was already forgiven, why would we need an advocate? If we simply needed to flip the salvation switch and we’d sail right into heaven without another thought, then why would Jesus need to advocate on our behalf with the Father?

A Call to Persevere in Faith

If we deliberately keep on sinning after we have received the knowledge of the truth, no sacrifice for sins is left, but only a fearful expectation of judgment and of raging fire that will consume the enemies of God. … How much more severely do you think someone deserves to be punished who has trampled the Son of God underfoot, who has treated as an unholy thing the blood of the covenant that sanctified them, and who has insulted the Spirit of grace? For we know him who said, ‘It is mine to avenge; I will repay,’ and again, ‘The Lord will judge his people.’ It is a dreadful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.’ (Hebrews 10:26–27, 29–31, NIV)

I woke up on Saturday morning quite confident in my conclusion that our final judgement would be based on the combination of our faith in Christ and our deeds (a position many would consider at least dangerously wrong, perhaps even heretical). I still had many questions that I needed to wrestle through, of course.

The verses I quoted above are some that had been running around in my head for a while that I thought meant that one could lose one’s salvation by persisting in doing evil. But there’s another side to what the Bible says that must be carefully considered. I’ll give two examples.

Passages about Assurance

I’m sure there are more passages than this that address the question of assurance, but here are four I came across in my studies that made me rethink my perspective.

Jesus’ Sheep

I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; no one will snatch them out of my hand. (John 10:28, NIV)

I have looked at this verse before, and I’d always thought people must’ve simply ignored the preceding verse:

My sheep listen to my voice; I know them, and they follow me. (John 10:27, NIV)

Who are Jesus’ sheep? The ones who listen to him, the ones who follow him, not only the ones who believe in him (cf. John 10:26). I drew the following conclusions: (1) salvation is a free gift from God, we are only able to receive it because the Father qualifies us through Jesus and (2) if we do not live for God, if we don’t listen to Jesus’ voice and follow him, we will not receive the reward of eternal life.

And yet, could it not be equally true that those who are truly Jesus’ sheep will (at least at times) be able to hear his voice and listen to it, that those who are truly Jesus’ sheep will follow him (at least at times)? One reason I think it might be right to read these verses as not talking about sheep who always hear his voice and always follow him is that Jesus talks of a lost sheep in Matthew 18 and Luke 15. It’s worthy of investigation, at least. Another possible reading comes through acknowledging the nature of the ever-present now-but-not-yet reality of the Christian life on this earth – perhaps Jesus was saying that, when you live into the reality of being my sheep, you will listen to me, you will follow me. Certainly, I have to acknowledge that I do not always hear his voice, that I do not always follow him.

God Will Carry the Good Work to Completion

I thank my God every time I remember you. In all my prayers for all of you, I always pray with joy because of your partnership in the gospel from the first day until now, being confident of this, that he who began a good work in you will carry it on to completion until the day of Christ Jesus. (Philippians 1:3–6, NIV)

The you in this verse is plural, so perhaps, as some argue, Paul is saying that God would bring his work in the church in Philippi as a group to completion. In this case, the verse would read something like this: that God will bring his good work in Philippi to completion, thus rendering the verse useless for any discussion on a believer’s assurance of future justification. However, this reading ignores Paul’s salutation in verse 1: ‘To all God’s holy people, together with the overseers and deacons’ and Paul’s assertion that he is confident in his prayers ‘for all of you’. Thus, it seems that Paul throws the conclusions I thought I’d reached into total disarray. Paul certainly seems to be saying that the final destiny of those who have truly been indwelt by the Spirit (‘God’s holy people in Christ Jesus’) is guaranteed. But what do we do with Hebrews 10, then?

An Eye-opening Experience

The view that I’ll put forward here conforms pretty well to the classical Reformed viewpoint. The view that I had when I started studying 1 Peter did not conform. There is logic to my thought process, but my change of mind (and heart) did not come through logic. It came, I think, in answer to my prayer that God would open my eyes and heart to see his truth. I think God is beginning to open my eyes to some of the depth of what he’s done for us. I’m not saying this to try to push anyone to agree with me or anything like that, but just to express the awe and wonder I have for a God who answers prayer, who condescends to instruct even the most thick-headed a believer such as me.

When the Holy Spirit comes to dwell in us we are given a new heart and a new spirit, as it says in Ezekiel:

For I will take you out of the nations; I will gather you from all the countries and bring you back into your own land. I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your impurities and from all your idols. I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit in you; I will remove from you your heart of stone and give you a heart of flesh. And I will put my Spirit in you and move you to follow my decrees and be careful to keep my laws. (Ezekiel 36:24–27)

If we have the Spirit, we will be transformed. If you’re not transformed, you don’t have the Spirit. If you’re not being transformed, you are still against God and God will be against you.

In Redemption Accomplished and Applied, John Murray articulates this well:

The person who is against God cannot be right with God. For if we are against God then God is against us. It could not be otherwise. God cannot be indifferent to or complacent towards that which is the contradiction of himself. His very perfection requires the recoil of righteous indignation. And that is God’s wrath. ‘The wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men’ (Romans 1:18). This is our situation and it is our relation to God; how can we be right with him? (1955, 117)

Murray goes on to say that ‘justification does not mean to make righteous, or good, or holy, or upright’ and that ‘in the application of redemption God makes people holy and upright. … He begins to do this in regeneration and he carries it on in the work of sanctification. He will perfect it in glorification.’ (ibid., 118) There’s a good chance this was obvious to everyone except me, but I’ve never really thought of justification in that way and it makes perfect sense.

Faith alone justifies but a person with faith alone would be a monstrosity which never exists in the kingdom of grace. Faith works itself out through love (Galatians 5:6). And faith without works is dead (James 2:17–20). It is living faith that justifies and living faith unites to Christ both in the virtue of his death and in this power of his resurrection. No one has entrusted himself to Christ for deliverance from the guilt of sin who has not also entrusted himself to him for deliverance from the power of sin. ‘What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? God forbid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer therein?’ (Romans 6:1–2) (ibid., 131)

For a long time, I thought this was at odds with a lot of what I read in scripture. And what Murray wrote really helped me make sense of all this. (Murray’s words are, I admit, quite similar to much of what others say on the matter, Murray just expressed it in a way that I finally understood.)

Making Sense of It All

I think the verses in Matthew 7, Matthew 25 and 1 Corinthians 6 can be understood in the relatively straightforward manner of answer the question of how you can know if you’re Jesus’ disciple. If we aren’t pursuing good things, if we aren’t pursuing the Father’s heart because we are moved by the Spirit as it says in Ezekiel 36 in addition to saying ‘Jesus, you’re my Lord’, then we’re not really saying ‘Jesus, you’re my Lord.’ Jesus doesn’t want lip service. If we’re pursuing wrongdoing, then the same applies: Jesus isn’t really our Lord, we’re faking it.

Hebrews 10 doesn’t seem to have as simple an explanation. In his devotional commentary, Hebrews for Everyone, N.T. Wright gives a helpful viewpoint:

This passage, then, is a warning about a more specific danger: that someone who has come close to Christian faith, and perhaps shared in the life of Christian worship, will then turn round and publicly deny it all. … But the passage remains as a warning to us as well. If we have got as far at least as reading Hebrews, and trying to see what it might mean for us, we should be all the more eager that there will never come a time when we might give in to the temptation to declare that the whole thing was worthless. The living God, to whom everyone will render account (4:13), is neither to be trifled with nor presumed upon. It was after all a nineteenth-century cynic, not a Christian believer, who said, ‘God will pardon me; that’s his job.’ (2004, 122)

This view lines up with two of Jesus’ parables in Matthew 13: the parable of the sower (vv. 1–23) and the parable of the weeds (vv. 24–30). It is possible for someone to hear the truth but not be transformed by it. It may seem as though they have been transformed for a time, but the apparent transformation fades and is shown to be no transformation at all.

A Working Theory

I don’t think I’ll become totally convinced of any position on this issue in just a week of study, especially given that I’ve now got ideas running around in my head that I haven’t thought about for quite some time, but here’s my working theory.

I owe everything to the Father for his grace to me in sending his Son to die in my place. I call on the Father and the Spirit daily for help to live for them, to overcome my fleshly desires. However, I am not yet perfect and I often fail to be who I am in Christ. My sins involve failing to do good as well as failing to avoid evil. I want to love what God loves and hate what God hates.

I believe the Bible when it teaches about the importance of what I do and think and what it teaches about the holiness of God. I also believe that, if I don’t pursue God with my whole heart and work to put the flesh to death, I am missing out on God’s blessings for me here and in some way endangering my future reward.

I am also starting to see a new dimension to what God has done. His declaration that I am just (his justification of me) will not be revoked. God has made known his future judgement to me now: I am accepted, justified, made a member of his family and this judgement will be repeated when God sits in judgement over me. How do I know that I’ve received the promise? I have the Spirit living in me. How do I know I have the Spirit living in me? I am seeing victory in the battle, I want to listen to Jesus’ voice (and at times I do listen), I want to follow him (and at times I do follow), I want to obey him (and at times I do obey). Though I am far from perfect, I am able to walk according to the Spirit instead of the flesh.

What I Know for Sure

When I fail to live up to who I am in Christ, I must be contrite. I cannot presume on God’s forgiveness. Instead, I thank him for his mercy and trust that he will forgive me as it says in 1 John: ‘If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness’ (1:9, NIV) and ‘But if anybody does sin, we have an advocate with the Father—Jesus Christ, the Righteous One.’ (2:1b, NIV)

I don’t know how other people read the verses in Hebrews. I am not even sure about how I read them, but I know one thing: I don’t want to go anywhere near trampling the Son of God underfoot, treating the blood that sanctified me as an unholy thing, insulting the Spirit of grace. I want to take seriously the warning that ‘it is a dreadful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.’

Why is This Important?

As long as the church has existed we have found ways to twist the gospel. At the moment, it feels like we’re still fighting the wars of the 16th century Reformation, we’re fighting so hard against any hint of the error (and it is an error) that we can trust in our own works for our salvation that we’ve missed what God has said to us through his word about the necessity of good works. In an effort to reverse the excesses of the past, we reject out of hand any notion that without good works we cannot be saved.

I recognise that for many people this idea of ‘Jesus + good works’ is the very thing they’re fighting against, the very heresy that has caused so much damage, and I do not dispute this, but neither can I dismiss the conclusion that you must do good works if you are really saved. As James says, faith without works is dead. If you have no works, you can have no faith. In Jesus’ own words, if we don’t do the Father’s will, it’s not enough to call Jesus Lord. You don’t have to prove to other people that you have faith, it doesn’t matter if I see your good works or not, but don’t for a second think that God is going to take some weak assertion that ‘Jesus is Lord’ as the kind of faith that saves.

Sola Fide

Oh man, I really regret even thinking about this stuff now. Sola fide is the doctrine that we are justified by faith alone. We’re dealing with two huge theological topics: justification and faith. I don’t even know where to begin to properly define these things, but I can talk about how I understand them. In the Lexham Survey of Theology, Tony Lane writes that ‘justification is a Christian’s judicial acceptance by God as not guilty because his sins are not counted against him.’ (2018) By this definition, of course, justification must be by faith alone (as Paul puts it, ‘all are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus … For we maintain that a person is justified by faith apart from the works of the law’, Romans 3:24, 28, NIV).

Lane continues:

The Reformers coined the doctrine of ‘justification by faith alone.’ This does not mean that faith exists on its own. Saving faith is expressed in baptism, is joined with repentance and works through love. Christians are not justified by such things, but nor are they justified without them. It is only faith that saves, not because faith is greater than love or any other virtue, but because faith is never alone, it never exists without love and good works. (2018)

I cannot read Jesus’ works in Matthew 7 that Jesus himself will reject the evildoers2 as compatible with the idea that our works exist simply to demonstrate our righteousness and the reality of our faith to others. I think they must be to prove our faith to ourselves (by doing good works through the Spirit we know that we have faith in God) and will be used as evidence for us in the final judgement (or, if we have not had true faith that led to good works, as evidence against us).

If, by sola fide, people mean ‘we are justified through faith alone’ then I agree, but it seems that we sometimes add that we are also sanctified by faith alone as though we could wait passively while God made us ‘better’. I acknowledge that I was lost in sin and that nothing I could have done would have been enough to bring about my justification. I know that I was a sinner in desperate need of a saviour and that that saviour could only be Jesus Christ. I know that the Father graciously accepts me because of his Son Jesus.

For some, sola fide has come to mean that ‘we are justified by faith alone which need not be accompanied by good works’. This isn’t the view of many theologians and I’ve never heard it from the pulpit, but I have a suspicion that it is the practical belief of many Christians because when we discuss it, for whatever reason, we leave it at ‘justified by faith alone’ or ‘saved by faith alone, but faith that saves is never alone’ without unpacking what that actually means.

Justified with Works

As Lane writes, ‘Christians are not justified by [baptism, repentance and works], but nor are they justified without them.’ (2018) Faith cannot exist without good works. That is clear from scripture. There is, I think, a nuance to this – this side of eternity, my faith will always be incomplete because my understanding and experience of Jesus is incomplete. Paul’s words to the Corinthians come to mind:

For now we see only a reflection as in a mirror; then we shall see face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known. (1 Corinthians 13:12, NIV)

Schreiner says this:

Paul does teach that good works are necessary for justification and for salvation, and Wright rightly says that those texts are not just about rewards. Those who are righteous are also transformed by the Holy Spirit. Only those who are led by the Spirit, walk in the Spirit, march in step with the Spirit, and sow to the Spirit will experience eternal life (Galatians 5:16, 25, 26; 6:8–9). Those who practice the works of the flesh and sow to the flesh will face eschatological judgment (5:21; 6:8).

Wright is careful to say that he is not talking about perfection but of God’s transforming grace in the lives of believers. He rightly sees that we have too often bracketed out the necessity of good works in evangelicalism. (Schreiner 2015, 242)3

In Paul and the Faithfulness of God, N.T. Wright lays out a view that seems to make sense but is complicated and I will need more time to fully digest:

Paul makes a clear distinction between the future ‘justification’, the verdict which will be issued on the last day on the basis of the totality of the life led (which in the case of the Messiah’s people will be a life generated and sustained by the spirit [sic.]), and the present justification which is the verdict announced on the basis of nothing but Messiah-faith. (2013, 1028)

Here’s where it all clicked into place for me: God knows that having faith in Jesus will result in a life full of good deeds, it will result in heart transformation, it will result in a life that, because of Jesus, God will ultimately judge as justified. A believer’s present justification is the pre-declaration of the future verdict based on the only thing God knows we need: true faith in the Messiah. If we have that, God will work to sanctify us, that’s his promise.

Wright continues:

Once we locate both of these events, as Paul does again and again, within the larger picture of the work of the gospel and spirit, and once we see as clearly as Paul did that all that is said of the Messiah’s people is said precisely because they are ‘the Messiah’s people’, and can be spoken of as being ‘in him’, it ought to be clear that there is a three-fold sequence, each part of which is importantly related to the others though playing significantly different roles (ibid.)

He gives three points in summary:4

  1. ‘There is the powerful work of the spirit through the gospel, which “calls” people to faith. It is on this basis alone that people are declared to be “in the right” … full members of the family, the people of Abraham, the people of the Messiah. This is justification by grace through faith in the present.’ (ibid., 1029)

  2. ‘There is the unbreakable promise that, by the same spirit, all the people thus described will in the end be raised from the dead to share the “inheritance” of the Messiah, the worldwide inheritance promised to Abraham. “The one who began a good work in you will thoroughly complete it by the day of the Messiah Jesus.”’ (ibid.)

  3. ‘Between (1) the beginning of the work of the spirit and (2) its triumphant conclusion, Paul envisages a spirit-led life which does not in any way contribute to initial justification, or to the consequent assurance of final justification which that initial justification brings, but transforms the life of the person who has already come to faith. This transformation enables such a person to “live by the spirit and not fulfil the desires of the flesh” (Galatians 5:16); or, in the language of Romans 8, to have the “mind of the spirit” … rather than the “mind of the flesh.”’ (ibid.)

Summary

I have no idea if anyone will read this far. It will probably seem like an unnecessarily long-winded description of how some nobody from Adelaide came to exactly the same conclusions that so many others had reached centuries earlier and that so many today see no reason to question. It’s true, that’s what it is. For my own sake, I’ll finish by summarising what I learnt.

I was a sinner in need of redemption. I had turned away from God, made myself his enemy. I have seen Jesus and put my faith in him, in his work on the cross. Through his grace and because of my faith in Jesus, the Father has declared me justified. I’ve been born again into his family, I’ve been given a new heart and his Spirit now dwells in me. Because I have seen Jesus and put my faith in him, I cannot help but pursue goodness and reject evil. This does not mean I will behave perfectly, but that I will not persist in sin, that I will seek victory over the flesh. Nor does it mean that I have to do it alone – God’s spirit dwells in me and moves me to actually want what is good. At the final judgement, God will not send me into the eternal fire, he will not find me to be someone who called him Lord but didn’t do the Father’s will. No, because I have seen Jesus and put my faith in him, my faith works itself out through love, it is not a dead faith, but a faith accompanied by many good works. This, too, is God’s grace to me. God promises to carry his work in me to completion. I remain aware of and motivated by the awesome reality of God’s holiness and I take the warnings I’ve received seriously – I don’t want to get anywhere near trampling the Son of God underfoot or insulting the Spirit of grace. I believe these warnings were given to eradicate any idea that one can have faith and still love evil. I continue to grow in love for God and his people, which is a blessing, but I know that, on the last day, I will not be talking about what I have done, but about what God has done in me. My hope lies not in my own power but in God’s grace. Christians who have no desire to work out their faith in love have a dead faith. To paraphrase Murray, they are monstrosities that cannot exist in the kingdom of grace.

Finally, I now see that this is no watering down of God’s holinenss or our sinfulness. Quite the contrary, this shows that those whom God calls must inevitably move toward holiness and away from sinfulness. This actually raises the bar even higher than what I had previously thought.

References

Lane, T., 2018. Justification. In M. Ward et al., eds. Lexham Survey of Theology. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.

McKnight, Scot, 1996. 1 Peter. NIVAC. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

Murray, J., 1955. Redemption: Accomplished and Applied, Grand Rapids, MI; Cambridge, UK: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

Schreiner, T.R., 2003. 1, 2 Peter, Jude, Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers.

Schreiner, T., 2015. Faith Alone—The Doctrine of Justification: What the Reformers Taught … and Why It Still Matters M. Barrett, ed., Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Wright, N.T., 2004. Hebrews for Everyone, London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

  1. Though I fail to see what motivates certain Christians who have adopted irresistible grace, predestination and a total rejection of any value in our works to evangelise. 

  2. Or, in the king’s words in Matthew 25, that those who did not do good works will be rejected, cursed and sent into the eternal fire. 

  3. In his book, Faith Alone, Schreiner goes on to talk about where he disagrees with N.T. Wright, but I don’t think that’s relevant to this discussion. It makes for great reading though, so I do recommend it. 

  4. Wright’s summary is itself rather long. If you’re interested, please read it in the original.